what was one significant outcome of the german peasants' revolt

[46] The peasants met again on 15 and 20 March in Memmingen and, after some additional deliberation, adopted the Twelve Articles and the Federal Order (Bundesordnung). When Müntzer arrived with 300 fighters from Mühlhausen on 11 May, several thousand more peasants of the surrounding estates camped on the fields and pastures: the final strength of the peasant and town force was estimated at 6,000. Historians disagree on the nature of the revolt and its causes, whether it grew out of the emerging religious controversy centered on Martin Luther; whether a wealthy tier of peasants saw their wealth and rights slipping away, and sought to re-inscribe them in the fabric of society; or whether it was peasant resistance to the emergence of a modernizing, centralizing political state. [42] Within a few weeks most of southwestern Germany was in open revolt. The lord had the right to use his peasants' land as he wished; the peasant could do nothing but watch as his crops were destroyed by wild game and by nobles galloping across his fields in the course of chivalric hunts. The peasant revolt remains one of the sore spots in church history. Peasants suffered from limited funding and lacked the training and organisational capabilities of professional armies. They had helped Luther to defy the Pope. The town patricians were increasingly criticized by the growing burgher class, which consisted of well-to-do middle-class citizens who held administrative guild positions or worked as merchants. Luther's Reformation became an increasingly conservative movement. This was the Radical or Popular Reformation, an effort by radicals, based on the Bible to live by God's Word and usually contrary to Martin Luther’s teachings. However, the Knights' Revolt was not fundamentally religious. Accordingly, the harshness of the lesser nobles' treatment of the peasantry provided the immediate cause of the uprising. Many pastors and ordinary people, who had been inspired by Luther, now turned against him, and this had begun before the Peasants War. [28], The peasant army was governed by a so-called ring, in which peasants gathered in a circle to debate tactics, troop movements, alliances, and the distribution of spoils. For Franz, the defeat thrust the peasants from view for centuries.[64]. Many peasants had served as soldiers, but the majority were untrained and only armed with farm implements. [23] F. Engels cites: "To the call of Luther of rebellion against the Church, two political uprisings responded, first, the one of lower nobility, headed by Franz von Sickingen in 1523, and then, the great peasant's war, in 1525; both were crushed, because, mainly, of the indecisiveness of the party having most interest in the fight, the urban bourgeoisie". The German Peasants War was the rebellion of agrarian peasants in the southern and central parts of German-speaking central Europe against the rulers of their cities and provinces. Being basic taxpayers peasants dramatically suffered from those new homages[2]. They had professional officers and had cavalry. It failed because of intense opposition from the aristocracy, who slaughtered up to 100,000 of the 300,000 poorly armed peasants and farmers. The Protestant Churches were to support the existing social order, which was hierarchal and socially conservative. A single Swabian contingent, close to 200 horse and 1,000-foot soldiers, however, could not deal with the size of the disturbance. Large sections of the town populations joined the uprising. In 1525 the last property rights of the abbots in the Imperial City were sold in the so-called "Great Purchase", marking the start of the co-existence of two independent cities bearing the same name next to each other. They seem to have used their mounted men for reconnaissance. [55] While the Württemberg band lost approximately 3,000 peasants (estimates range from 2,000 to 9,000), the League lost no more than 40 soldiers. [53], On 29 April the peasant protests in Thuringia culminated in open revolt. 5 points What was the significance of the peasants revolt? c. Criminals kidnap a famous politician. After the refusal by the Duke of Baden, Margrave Ernst, to accept the 12 Articles, peasants attacked abbeys in the Black Forest. Moreover, the elites began to have more control over the actual running of the newly formed Lutheran Churches. Although technically potential burghers, most journeymen were barred from higher positions by the wealthy families who ran the guilds. Although they only managed to hold the allegiance of small numbers of the European population, they were enormously influential, especially in America.[19]. Not only were they literate, but in the Middle Ages they had produced most books. [2], The wealthy class of German peasants had become relatively prosperous since the Black Death; however, they felt that the nobility threatened their prosperity. Historians have come to see Luther after 1525 as promoting ‘a Magisterial Reformation.’[16] one directed and controlled by the traditional rulers. They were quite mobile, but they also had drawbacks: they required a fairly large area of flat terrain and they were not ideal for offense. They took an advantageous position on the east bank of the Biber. In addition to this democratic construct, each band had a hierarchy of leaders including a supreme commander and a marshal (schultheiss), who maintained law and order. [46] Their banner, the Bundschuh, or a laced boot, served as the emblem of their agreement. A new economic interpretation arose in the 1950s and 1960s. Local rebellions became usual for Central Europe since 1400, including such famous ones as Hussite wars (1420-1434), series of revolts known as the Bundschuh movement (circa 1440-1530), Hungarian peasants revolt (1514) and s number of minor disorders. His article Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants appeared in May 1525 just as the rebels were being defeated on the fields of battle. [29], However, the peasants lacked the Swabian League's cavalry, having few horses and little armour. In this tract, Luther instructed the German Nobility to strike down the peasants as one would kill a mad dog. Peasants’ Revolt, also called Wat Tyler’s Rebellion, (1381), first great popular rebellion in English history. The Revolt of the Peasants in England in 1381. Edward’s … In this work, he used strong language to call for the extermination of the rebels who had ‘’become the worst blasphemers of God and slanderers of his holy name.” [10] Luther, under the influence of St Augustine, believed that humanity would be deprived and prone to evil.[11]. Some bands could number about 4,000; others, such as the peasant force at Frankenhausen, could gather 8,000. The Truchsess' horse units cut down an additional 500. Parliament gave up trying to control wages, feudal system broke down, peasants got more respect. The peasants assaulted and captured the castle of Weinsberg; most of its own soldiers were on duty in Italy, and it had little protection. [47] (The "great tithe" was assessed by the Catholic Church against the peasant's wheat crop and the peasant's vine crops. [24] He was also known as the "Scourge of the Peasants". There were many reasons for the outbreak. Ruined burghers also joined their ranks. He even argued that every Christian should obey the temporal ruler without question and, if requested, should serve as an executioner for a tyrant. 1. [9] After the Peasants War, Luther became even more conservative. This prompted him to write the polemic ‘Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants’. Labor shortages in the last half of the 14th century had allowed peasants to sell their labor for a higher price; food and goods shortages had allowed them to sell their products for a higher price as well. [15] Thus, their dominance over serfs was more restricted. Because of the Peasant War crisis, the new Protestant Churches became more conservative and came under the elite's total control. Click to see full answer. Using Karl Marx's concept of historical materialism, Engels portrayed the events of 1524–1525 as prefiguring the 1848 Revolution. [24] The use of the landsknechte in the German Peasants' War reflects a period of change between traditional noble roles or responsibilities towards warfare and practice of buying mercenary armies, which became the norm throughout the 16th century. The lack of cavalry with which to protect their flanks, and with which to penetrate massed landsknecht squares, proved to be a long-term tactical and strategic problem.[32]. He has shown to many Germans satisfaction that the Catholic Church's traditional power had only been a social construction and was not sanctioned by God. [28], Haufen were formed from companies, typically 500 men per company, subdivided into platoons of 10 to 15 peasants each. Rohrbach ordered the band's piper to play during the running of the gauntlet. Avoiding the advances of the Swabian League to retake Herrenberg, the Württemberg band set up three camps between Böblingen and Sindelfingen. How did the Renaissance influence the Reformation? [14], They and the clergy paid no taxes and often supported their local prince.[12]. As the guilds grew and urban populations rose, the town patricians faced increasing opposition. We shall see the classes and fractions of classes which everywhere betrayed 1848 and 1849 in the role of traitors, though on a lower level of development, already in 1525. The Truchsess ordered his army to search the battlefield, and the soldiers discovered approximately 500 peasants who had feigned death. The Peasants War changed the course of the Reformation. The conservative Reformation forced commoners to establish faith and church that met their needs and gave birth to the Radical or Popular Reformation. The so-called Book of One Hundred Chapters, for example, written between 1501 and 1513, promoted religious and economic freedom, attacking the governing establishment and displaying pride in the virtuous peasant. He seemed to have even acquiesced in developing churches in German states that were often largely controlled by the local elite. Militarily, the nobles had all the advantages. [15] Thus their "temporary" position devoid of civic rights tended to become permanent. [56], At Königshofen, on 2 June, peasant commanders Wendel Hipfler and Georg Metzler had set camp outside of town. For example, an SS cavalry division (the 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer) was named after Florian Geyer, a knight who led a peasant unit known as the Black Company. Their luxurious lifestyle drained what little income they had as prices kept rising. Historians disagree on the nature of the revolt and its causes, whether it grew out of the emerging religious controversy centered on Luther; whether a wealthy tier of peasants saw their own wealth and rights slipping away, and sought to weave them into the legal, social and religious fabric of society; or whether peasants objected to the emergence of a modernizing, centralizing nation state. Luther's revolution may have added intensity to these movements, but did not create them; the two events, Luther's Protestant Reformation and the German Peasants' War, were separate, sharing the same years but occurring independently. It is estimated that 100,000 peasants were killed. Aristocratic dynasties ruled hundreds of largely independent territories (both secular and ecclesiastical) within the framework of the empire, and several dozen others operated as semi-independent city-states. The German Peasants' War was Europe's largest and most widespread popular uprising prior to the French Revolution of 1789. The course of the war also demonstrated the importance of a congruence of events: the new liberation ideology, the appearance within peasant ranks of charismatic and military-trained men like Müntzer and Gaismair, a set of grievances with specific economic and social origins, a challenged set of political relationships and a communal tradition of political and social discourse. Log in. On the left stood a wood, and on their right, a stream and marshland; behind them, they had erected a wagon fortress, and they were armed with arquebuses and some light artillery pieces. [12] Lutheranism in part, because of the Peasant War, became a faith that was very much concerned with social order and discipline. Peasants' Revolt; Peasants' Revolt. 5.5 Peasant Revolts in the German States DBQ In the midst of immense religious upheaval accompanied by political confusion and social despair during the mid-1500s, German peasants turned to revolt as a means of expressing their discontent. [12], The innovations in military technology of the Late Medieval period began to render the lesser nobility (the knights) militarily obsolete. The German peasant rebellion of 1525 wasn't the only uprising in Central Europe: the Jacquerie in France in 1356-1358, the Peasant's revolt of 1381 in England, the Rebellion of the Remences in Spain in 1462 and 1485 and many others, are other manifestations of the social struggles in Medieval Europe. The Peasants’ War was not the first revolt against the authority of nobles in Germany, but it was the most widespread the region had seen so far. Luther promoted this somewhat reactionary approach, at least in part because of the Peasants War. He could not support the Peasant War because it broke the peace, an evil he thought greater than the evils the peasants were rebelling against. Luther argued that work was the chief duty on earth; the duty of the peasants was farm labor and the duty of the ruling classes was upholding the peace. As a consequence, the strongest groaned under increased oppression and the weak simply perished. This was just what the Lutheran and Catholic aristocracy wanted to hear, and it is precisely what they did. The German Peasants, especially the wealthier groups, wanted to safeguard hard-earned prosperity that they believed was under threat from the nobility. Luther and his supporters were fearful that their movement could become tainted by association with the Peasants Revolt. They used these traditional entitlements to seize more of the peasants’ wealth through taxes and dues.[3]. After the peasants took control of Freiburg in Breisgau, Hans Müller took some of the group to assist in the siege at Radolfzell. At the peak of the insurrection in 1525, his position shifted completely to support of the rulers of the secular principalities and their Roman Catholic allies. Find an answer to your question What was the significance of the peasants revolt? The German Peasants, especially the wealthier groups, wanted to safeguard a hard-earned prosperity that they believed was under threat … The main causes of the failure of the rebellion was the lack of communication between the peasant bands because of territorial divisions, and because of their military inferiority. He also tended to support the centralization and urbanization of the economy. The landsknechte clothed, armed and fed themselves, and were accompanied by a sizable train of sutlers, bakers, washerwomen, prostitutes and sundry individuals with occupations needed to sustain the force. Initially, Luther had seemed to promise a Church that was more liberal, but after the Peasant’s War, it became noticeably more conservative and even reactionary. They gradually usurped the common lands and made it illegal for peasants to fish or to log wood from these lands. Both sides perpetrated atrocities. This led to growing frustration among many, which led directly to the Radical or the Popular Reformation. Most of the insurgents were slain in what turned out to be a massacre. This position alienated the lesser nobles, but shored up his position with the burghers. In 1213, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II declared the abbots members of the Reichsstand, or imperial estate, and granted the abbot the title of duke. This sometimes meant producing supplies for their opponents, such as in the Archbishopric of Salzburg, where men worked to extract silver, which was used to hire fresh contingents of landsknechts for the Swabian League. As the uprising spread, some … They tried to fix their finances and reassert their control by enforcing these an… The Bishop of Augsburg, for example, had to contribute 10 horse (mounted) and 62 foot soldiers, which would be the equivalent of a half-company. The Battle of Böblingen (12 May 1525) perhaps resulted in the greatest casualties of the war. This 1524/5 revolt was unprecedented in its scale, starting in south-west Germany but eventually extending as far as Saxony in the east and Austria in the south. The peasants of Germany and Switzerland heard the promise of political _____ and social betterment in the Protestant sermon and pamphlet. Some bishops, archbishops, abbots and priors were as ruthless in exploiting their subjects as the regional princes. Over 100,000 peasants died and the misery of those who remained worsened. Soon Protestant pastors and preachers, disillusioned with the ‘Magisterial Reformation,’ taught a more radical version of Protestantism, one that Luther condemned. [38] However, Luther's doctrine of the "priesthood of all believers" could be interpreted as proposing greater social equality than Luther intended. d. A god teaches humans how to make fire. Hipler and Metzler fled with the master gunners. Although Blickle sees a crisis of feudalism in the latter Middle Ages in southern Germany, he highlighted political, social and economic features that originated in efforts by peasants and their landlords to cope with long term climate, technological, labor and crop changes, particularly the extended agrarian crisis and its drawn-out recovery. The Alsatian peasants who took to the field at the Battle of Zabern (now Saverne) numbered 18,000. [64], Meanwhile, historians in East Germany engaged in major research projects to support the Marxist viewpoint.[65]. The Peasants' Revolt, Tyler’s Rebellion or Great Rising of 1381 was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe and is a major event in the history of England.The names of some of its leaders, John Ball, Wat Tyler and Jack Straw, are still familiar even though very little is actually known about these individuals. The patricians consisted of wealthy families who sat alone in the town councils and held all the administrative offices. A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany, the causes of which are disputed as a result of religious and political prejudice.At present the opinion prevails that the revolt was brought about mainly by economic distress. People in all layers of the social hierarchy—serfs or city dwellers, guildsmen or farmers, knights and aristocrats—started to question the established hierarchy. The bands varied in size, depending on the number of insurgents available in the locality. Luther and others sought to distance themselves from the War and supported the nobility and the Swabian League unequivocally. Luther, especially after the Peasant’s War, believed that temporal authority should not be challenged in any way. Bibliography: Unlike traditional customs, Roman law made it much easier for German landlords and nobles to demand extra rents and dues. This ignited the Knights' Revolt that occurred from 1522 through 1523 in the Rhineland. He interpreted the uprising's causes as essentially political, and secondarily economic: the assertions by princely landlords of control over the peasantry through new taxes and the modification of old ones, and the creation of servitude backed up by princely law. [citation needed], The Swabian League fielded an army commanded by Georg, Truchsess von Waldburg, later known as "Bauernjörg" for his role in the suppression of the revolt. They claimed that Blickle's analysis was based on a dubious form of the Malthusian principle, and that the peasant economic recovery was significantly limited, both regionally and in its depth, allowing only a few peasants to participate. [59] However the overall goals of change for these peasants, particularly looking through the lens of the Twelve Articles, had failed to come to pass and would remain stagnant, real change coming centuries later. The revolt covered large areas of Europe, and it began in Alsace-Lorraine (now in France) and spread as far west as Austria. In 1524, massive peasant rebellions in the German lands broke out in opposition to high taxes and oppression and raged into 1525. Luther was also genuinely appalled by the behavior of the peasants. Each haufen was organized into unterhaufen, or fähnlein and rotten. Having taken the count as their prisoner, the peasants took their revenge a step further: They forced him, and approximately 70 other nobles who had taken refuge with him, to run the gauntlet of pikes, a popular form of execution among the landsknechts. The peasants were overtaken by the League's horse, which encircled and pursued them for kilometres. The detached troops encountered a separate group of 1,200 peasants engaged in local requisitions, and entered into combat, dispersing them and taking 250 prisoners. The Peasants' Revolt started in Essex on 30 May 1381, when a tax collector tried, for the third time in four years, to levy a poll tax. [12], The knights became embittered as their status and income fell and they came increasingly under the jurisdiction of the princes, putting the two groups in constant conflict. Key to Franz's interpretation is the understanding that peasants had benefited from the economic recovery of the early 16th century and that their grievances, as expressed in such documents as the Twelve Articles, had little or no economic basis. [8], Thomas Müntzer was the most prominent radical reforming preacher who supported the demands of the peasantry, including political and legal rights. In 1381, a vast rebel army ransacked the Tower of London, burned the palaces and assassinated government officials. A band of five companies, plus approximately 25 citizens of Leipheim, assumed positions west of the town. The Revolt not only involved peasants, but also merchants, artisans, members of the minor nobility and Protestant pastors. In approximately two hours, more than 8,000 peasants were killed. It is just as one must kill a mad dog; if you do not strike him he will strike you. [1] The survivors were fined and achieved few, if any, of their goals. Müntzer's theology had been developed against a background of social upheaval and widespread religious doubt, and his call for a new world order fused with the political and social demands of the peasantry. Arbitrary road, bridge, and gate tolls were instituted at will. In the early 16th century, no peasant could hunt, fish, or chop wood freely, as they previously had, because the lords had recently taken control of common lands. The count, much despised by his subjects, was the son-in-law of the previous Holy Roman Emperor, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBlickle1981 (, Hannes Obermair, "Logiche sociali della rivolta tradizionalista. He had previously believed that the church should be kept separate from the secular power, which is inherently corrupt and corrupting.[14]. However, in the south of Germany their powers were more intact. In 1994, a mass grave was discovered near Leipheim; linked by coins to the time period, archaeologists discovered that most of the occupants had died of head wounds (. "[61] Engels ascribed the failure of the revolt to its fundamental conservatism. [41], During the 1524 harvest, in Stühlingen, south of the Black Forest, the Countess of Lupfen ordered serfs to collect snail shells for use as thread spools after a series of difficult harvests. Parliament gave up trying to control the wages the landowners paid their peasants. League reconnaissance reported to the Truchsess that the peasants were well-armed. Some of the articles also demanded that ‘tithes’ or payments to the church be only spent locally and that local communities had a greater role in their churches' governing. This caused an increase in land but a shortage of labourers. [22] Some of the poorer clergy sought to extend Luther's equalizing ideas to society at large. [60] Using Karl Marx's concept of historical materialism, Engels portrayed the events of 1524–1525 as prefiguring the 1848 Revolution. Clerical ignorance and the abuses of simony and pluralism (holding several offices at once) were rampant. Following a fall in population in the 14th century, lords had given up on claiming some of their ancient rights that were no longer either useful or viable. [30] Wagons were chained together in a suitable defensive location, with cavalry and draft animals placed in the center. [13] As the secularisation of monasteries and nunneries progressed, the nobles and the urban elite had benefitted enormously. While the famous Twelve Articles of the Swabian peasants were certainly not composed by Müntzer, at least one important supporting document, the Constitutional Draft, may well have originated with him. Unexpectedly, the peasants delivered a uniform declaration that struck at the pillars of the peasant-magisterial relationship. The burgher-master (guild master, or artisan) now owned both his workshop and its tools, which he allowed his apprentices to use, and provided the materials that his workers needed. Thus embezzlement and fraud became common, and the patrician class, bound by family ties, became wealthier and more powerful. Some clergy were supported by the nobility and the rich, while others appealed to the masses. [52], The massacre at Weinsberg was also too much for Luther; this is the deed that drew his ire in Against the Murderous, Thieving Hordes of Peasants in which he castigated peasants for unspeakable crimes, not only for the murder of the nobles at Weinsberg, but also for the impertinence of their revolt. Large sections of the peasantry and others sought to escape across the Danube to...., on the left upkeep impelled them to keep raising demands on their subjects as Telangana! Or city dwellers, guildsmen or farmers, knights and infantry conducted pitched... 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