thermal tactile stimulation

Am J Physiol. The color bar represents the t-value. 2006, 32 (3): 1281-1289. Below are the links to the authors’ original submitted files for images. After stroking both sides three times subjects were instructed to swallow to eliminate the melt water. CAS  About five percent of the trials were rejected due to overlap between (1) and (2) or between (4) and (2) of the subsequent swallow. T1-weighted sagittal anatomical images with in-plane resolution of 512 × 512 (0.6 × 0.6 mm resolution) and 320 slices (0.5 mm thickness) were recorded using spoiled gradient echo imaging. 1983, San Diego CA: CH Press. 10.1016/S1388-2457(02)00007-X. CAS  Clin Neurophysiol. 1996, 11 (3): 198-206. 1995, 38 (3): 556-563. Definition of active, resting and background stages of swallowing-related muscle activity. BMC Neurosci 10, 71 (2009). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Dysphagia. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. On the other hand it remains unclear whether the observed effects are related to functional cortical reorganization or are more unspecific reactions to differences in attention due to the afferent input. Ding R, Larson CR, Logemann JA, Rademaker AW: Surface electromyographic and electroglottographic studies in normal subjects under two swallow conditions: normal and during the Mendelsohn manuever. 2007, 8: 62-10.1186/1471-2202-8-62. Impairments of sensation have been implicated in aspiration after stroke [3–7] and are known to result in short-term dysphagia even in healthy subjects when induced by oropharyngeal anaesthesia [8, 9]. 2006, 21 (1): 49-55. Brain Topogr. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.". Teismann IK, Steinstraeter O, Schwindt W, Ringelstein EB, Pantev C, Dziewas R: Age-related changes in cortical swallowing processing. Interestingly, the illusion was reported to disappear when the middle digit was lifted off the thermal stimulator, suggesting that tactile stimulation is … Google Scholar. Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. RD made substantial contributions to conception and design, and has given final approval of the version to be published. Either thermal or taste stimuli are supposed to heighten the sensitivity for swallowing in the oral cavity thereby leading to a more rapid triggering of the swallowing reflex [19]. While the artifacts caused by oropharyngeal muscle activation during the act of swallowing make it difficult to study activation in subcortical and bulbar structures, the cortical areas especially the sensorimotor areas can be examined in detail. 1986, 1 (73–33): Selinger M, Prescott TE, Hoffman I: Temperature acceleration in cold oral stimulation. 2002, 113 (3): 354-366. Dysphagia. The tube was gently fixed to the skin with tape. By using this website, you agree to our The maximal null distribution was estimated by comparing the two background stages (3) and (4) [50, 51]. Hamdy S, Aziz Q, Rothwell JC, Hobson A, Barlow J, Thompson DG: Cranial nerve modulation of human cortical swallowing motor pathways. Based on their findings, Daniels and co-workers suggested a left hemisphere control for volitional aspects of swallowing and a right hemisphere control for reflexive swallowing behaviour. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can monitor cortical activity with a high temporal and spatial resolution [22]. Pommerenke studied tactile stimuli at several places in the oral cavity and found that the faucial pillars were the most sensitive in triggering swallowing. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. They are innervated by the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve and the glossopharyngeal nerve. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript. T1 - Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic parkinson's disease. These intervals were chosen because they are both in reference to M1. Therefore a direct comparison is possible without further calculations. Though long term changes in swallowing behavior after TTOS could not be shown yet, our findings may point to therapeutical approaches in swallowing rehabilitation. 10.1097/00001756-200504040-00005. This effect was observable in both hemispheres and conditions (see figure 1a, b). Due to the startup procedure of the MEG system the overall time between stimulation and the beginning of the measurements was between 2 and 3 minutes. Leelamanit V, Limsakul C, Geater A: Synchronized electrical stimulation in treating pharyngeal dysphagia. This was done 5 times within 2 minutes. © 2021 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. The anterior faucial pillars (AFP) are bilaterally located on the oral side of the velum and form part of the soft palate. Here the early intervals represent the oral phase of deglutition while the later intervals are part of the pharyngeal swallowing phase. Article  Submental recording of muscle activation is a simple and reliable noninvasive screening method for evaluating swallowing with low levels of discomfort [42]. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic parkinson's disease. thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS), which involves stroking or rubbing the anterior faucial pillars with a cold probe prior to having the patient swallow. Event related desynchronization. A pseudo-t value cancels the common-mode brain activity by subtracting the source power found in a defined control stage from the source power in the active stage. BMC Neuroscience The Mirror can be sterilized by steam, hot air or antiseptic solutions. This finding underlines the hypothesis of hemispheric specialization in swallowing processing. 10.1007/s00455-005-9009-0. In the alpha frequency band and other cortical areas no significant activation was observed in either of the two conditions. Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. The time-frequency plots of the parietal channels were determined for both hemispheres and averaged across all subjects in each group. Wavelet group analysis of MEG sensor recordings revealed distinct activation in the higher alpha and lower beta frequency band in the parietal sensors with a reduction of activation at about M1 and a re-increase after about 400 – 600 ms. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Group analysis of multiple subjects' data was performed as previously published [47–50]. Neuroimage. Our results provide an insight into the physiological mechanisms by which TTOS might lead to the previously observed facilitation of swallowing. 2004, 286 (1): G45-50. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. For further analysis time intervals were defined as following: EMG recording and resulting time phases. In order to examine the chronological sequence of brain activation, the execution stage was divided into 5 parts, each lasting 200 ms. Time intervals including the according resting stages for the subsequent analysis were defined as follows (see figure 5): EMG recording with division of the execution stage. The end of task-specific muscle activity was defined as a decrease in amplitude or frequency of the EMG signal greater than 50%. Quantitative data: timing measures. 10.1007/BF00265206. A difference plot of both conditions demonstrates stronger desynchronization in the stimulation condition compared to the reference measurement (see figure 1c). AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1997, 272 (4 Pt 1): G802-808. Julie Regan, Margaret Walshe, W. Oliver Tobin, Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review. The beginning of the main muscle activation was defined as an enduring > 100% increase in amplitude or frequency of the EMG signal after an initial increase of more than 50% of EMG activity defining the onset of swallowing preparation. From the filtered MEG data, SAM was used to generate a 20 × 20 × 14 cm volumetric pseudo-t images [46] with 3 mm voxel resolution for both frequency bands. In contrast, after TTOS significant left lateralized activation was seen in all 5 time intervals. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic parkinson's disease. Further examinations employing TTOS in dysphagic patients have to show that increased cortical activation is paralleled by an improved swallowing performance. While many patients experience recovery of swallowing within the first few weeks after stroke, 40% of dysphagic stroke patients develop aspiration pneumonia which in turn increases the use of artificial feeding, length of hospital stay, and mortality [10]. 1996, 105 (2): 92-97. About 80 years ago sensory stimulation was first advocated as a method for facilitating swallowing [11]. Inga K Teismann. 1994, 9 (2): 83-87. This suggests that afferents from the oral-pharyngeal chemoreceptors can facilitate deglutition [36]. Power ML, Fraser CH, Hobson A, Singh S, Tyrrell P, Nicholson DA, Turnbull I, Thompson DG, Hamdy S: Evaluating oral stimulation as a treatment for dysphagia after stroke. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). MEG data were collected using a whole head 275-channel SQUID sensor array (Omega 275, CTF Systems Inc.). Dodds WJ, Taylor AJ, Stewart ET, Kern MK, Logemann JA, Cook IJ: Tipper and dipper types of oral swallows. Neurobiol Aging. Also taste stimuli have been shown effects on swallowing. Tactile-thermal application for treating dysphagia has a tumultous history. Initiation- The patient will demonstrate a swallow delay of only 1-2 seconds following thermal tactile stimulation on 10/10 therapeutic trials to decrease aspiration risk Compensatory- Patient will demonstrate adequate use of the following compensatory strategies (chin tuck, multiple swallows, head turn, etc.) EMG data was high pass filtered with 0.1 Hz before markers were manually set. Rosenbek JC, Roecker EB, Wood JL, Robbins J: Thermal application reduces the duration of stage transition in dysphagia after stroke. Tactile-thermal stimulation of the anterior faucial pillars is a traditional method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia, but evidence is scarce. We hypothesized an increased swallowing related activation of the somatosensory cortex after oropharyngeal stimulation compared to the baseline condition without prior stimulation. EBR and CP revised the manuscript critically for important intellectual content. According to these results MEG data were then filtered in the alpha and beta band. 10.1016/S0003-9993(98)90200-3. Rosenbek JC, Robbins J, Fishback B, Levine RL: Effects of thermal application on dysphagia after stroke. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. 2007, 22 (1): 1-10. To estimate the maximal null distribution (see below), a third marker was set to distinguish background activity from the onset of swallowing preparation (M0). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Thermal tactile stimulation also, known as thermal application (Rosenbek, Robbins, Fishback, & Levine, 1991, p. 1258) is one type of therapy used for the treatment of swallowing disorders. 2003, 20 (1): 135-144. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. Neuroimage. No confound by the movie was expected due to its continuous presentation during deglutition and the resting stages. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Colangelo L, Lazarus C, Fujiu M, Kahrilas PJ: Effects of a sour bolus on oropharyngeal swallowing measures in patients with neurogenic dysphagia. Dziewas R, Ritter M, Schilling M, Konrad C, Oelenberg S, Nabavi DG, Stogbauer F, Ringelstein EB, Ludemann P: Pneumonia in acute stroke patients fed by nasogastric tube. The examiner who set the markers to the datasets was blinded to the two tasks. 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.02.041. Neumann S, Bartolome G, Buchholz D, Prosiegel M: Swallowing therapy of neurologic patients: correlation of outcome with pretreatment variables and therapeutic methods. The amount of water swallowed during the two compared measurements was identical for each subject. Right hemispheric activation increases over time with a slight decrease in the last time frame (see figure 3). 1999, 116 (2): 455-478. 2000, 12 (3): 298-306. 2009, 30 (4): 1352-60. PubMed Google Scholar. Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. To analyze the cortical activation within the early and later stages of the execution phase, this 1 second interval is divided into 5 successive 200 ms time intervals (E1 – E5). 10.1002/hbm.1058. Group analysis of SAM results revealed significant event related desynchronizations (ERD) in the beta frequency band located in the primary sensorimotor cortex (BAs 4, 3, 1, and 2) in both conditions (p < 0.05) (see figure 2). Teismann IK, Steinstraeter O, Warnecke T, Zimmermann J, Ringelstein EB, Pantev C, Dziewas R: Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism. Changes in the beta-frequency-band during swallowing execution compared to the resting stage. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. thermal-tactile stimulation is a better treatment for patients with swallowing disorders after stroke than thermal-tactile stimulation alone. Comparisons between the two time intervals, the two hemispheres, and the two groups were performed using two-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc t-tests. previous studies have investigated the effect of thermal stimulations on the changes in the perception and taste thresholds in the oral cavity. The electrodes were connected to a bipolar amplifier (DSQ 2017E EOG/EMG system, CTF Systems Inc., Canada), and the nominal gain was set at 1. Dysphagia. Report 1. • Patient will utilize thermal tactile stimulation to increase oral sensation for safe consumption of least restrictive diet with (min/mod/max) verbal, visual and tactile cues • The patient will move the bolus to the back of the mouth and propel the food and liquid in a timely manner with thermal tactile stimulation to safely consume least restrictive diet with (min/mod/max) verbal, visual and tactile … Dysphagia. Yetkin FZ, Hammeke TA, Swanson SJ, Morris GL, Mueller WM, McAuliffe TL, Haughton VM: A comparison of functional MR activation patterns during silent and audible language tasks. The aim was to establish a swallowing frequency of four to six times per minute. Along this reasoning, TTOS, according to the present findings, may lead to a facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Robbins J, Levine RL, Maser A, Rosenbek JC, Kempster GB: Swallowing after unilateral stroke of the cerebral cortex. BMC Neuroscience , 10(1), 71. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Finally, patients with a chronic pharyngeal stage dysfunction revealed stronger right hemispheric activation, both in size and time, indicating cortical compensation of their pharyngeal dysphagia [41]. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. The corresponding resting stage served as a control. A clear distinction between the two phases based on the submental EMG recordings is not possible. In contrast to this, TTOS revealed increased bihemispheric activation with predominant activation of the left somatosensory cortical areas during the whole swallowing interval. 10.1046/j.1365-2982.2000.00232.x. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. The color bar represents the t-value. Different behavioural studies examined the effect of oropharyngeal stimulation before. Significant activation in the group analysis is shown (p < 0.05). CAS  Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). In the present study a significant increase of cortical swallowing activation was observed after TTOS compared to a swallowing paradigm without stimulation. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Afterwards the two time intervals "execution" (1) and "predeglution" (5) were defined for further calculations. PubMed Central  This resulted in a swallowing volume of about two to three ml. Then the spatial normalized activation maps were obtained by applying this transformation to the individual SAM volumes. Stroke direction was from top (medial) to bottom (lateral). Motor tasks have been shown to result in event-related desynchronisations (ERD) of the cortical beta rhythm in cortical motor areas [23, 24]. 1991, 34 (6): 1257-1268. 2002, 15 (1): 1-25. ---Thermal Tactile Stimulation --This involves vertically rubbing the anterior faucial arch firmly, 4 or 5 times, with a size 00 laryngeal mirror, which has been held in crushed ice for several seconds. 2008, 8 (1): 13-10.1186/1471-2377-8-13. Laryngoscope. The maximum pseudo-t value increased in the TTOS condition (34.1% in the right hemisphere, 13.6% in the left hemisphere). Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). 1998, 13 (1): 10-11. Thermal Receptors Nerve endings beneath the epidermis report to the brain on cold and warmth as feedback of tactile stimulation. Although in the present experiment SAM analysis of the first two 200 ms intervals did not reveal significant activation in either hemisphere, an increase of right hemispheric activation was seen in the following time intervals. CAS  Colors represent the level of frequency power (fT/Hz), with lower numbers (blue) indicating a decrease in power (ERD) and higher numbers (red) an increase in power (ERS). To define the active frequency bands and to examine the temporal sequencing of activation time-frequency plots were calculated using wavelet analysis. Chau W, Herdman AT, Picton TW: Detection of power changes between conditions using split-half resampling of synthetic aperture magnetometry data. TR is an important phenomenon that reflects how thermal and tactile modalities coordinate to resolve Today this technique is often used in the treatment of patients with neurogenic dysphagia to facilitate a delayed or absent swallowing response. Google Scholar. Hum Brain Mapp. (1) 200 ms Execution stage 1 (E1): -0.4 to -0.2 s in reference to M1, (2) 200 ms Execution stage 2 (E2): -0.2 to 0.0 s in reference to M1, (3) 200 ms Execution stage 3 (E3): 0.0 to 0.2 s in reference to M1, (4) 200 ms Execution stage 4 (E4): 0.2 to 0.4 s in reference to M1, (5) 200 ms Execution stage 5 (E5): 0.4 to 0.6 s in reference to M1, (6) 200 ms Resting stage (R): 0 to 0.2 s in reference to M2, (7) 200 ms Background active (B1): -0.2 to 0 s in reference to M0, (8) 200 ms Background control (B2): -0.4 to -0.2 s in reference to M0. The corresponding resting stage (R) and two background stages (B1 and B2) are also shortened to 200 ms (Methods). Dysphagia. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. These calculations were done using EMEGS (ElectroMagnetic-EncephaloGraphy Software; http://www.emegs.org/), a tool for analyzing neuroscientific data developed in MATLAB [45]. Google Scholar. 10.1007/BF00366386. Between 600 ms and 1 s right hemispheric lateralization of activation could be observed. 10.1016/S1052-3057(96)80023-1. It helps trigger a swallow by stimulating the anterior pillars of faces. Junghoefer M, Peyk P: Analysis of electrical potentials and magnetic fields of the brain. This illusion was first demonstrated in an experiment where three stimulators were touched with the middle three fingers of one hand (from D2: index finger to D4: ring finger). Similar activation is found in both hemispheres before swallowing onset. Cookies policy. In thermal referral, simultaneous presentation of thermal and tactile stimulation on different skin sites produces an illusory thermal sensation at the site of tactile stimulation. By correlating temperature with colour, a thermal tactile display can therefore be developed to provide a sense of colour, especially for the individuals who are blind or visually impaired. 2004, 22 (4): 1447-1455. 10.1006/meth.2001.1238. The enhanced swallowing ability seen in dysphagic patients observed after application of TTOS [32, 33] supports the hypothesis of cortical reorganization. 1997, 12 (4): 188-193. 2003, 285 (1): G137-144. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. The infusion flow was individually adjusted to the subject's request and ranged between 8 and 12 ml/min. 2. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect. According to the changes of the time-frequency analysis MEG data were than filtered within two frequency bands: alpha (8–13 Hz) and beta (13–30 Hz). 10.1097/00005537-200212000-00015. This method involves stroking or rubbing the anterior faucial pillars with a cold probe prior to having the patient swallow. MRI data were acquired on a 3.0 T Scanner (Gyroscan Intera, Philips Medical Systems, Best, The Netherlands) with a standard head coil. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=77957297215&partnerID=8YFLogxK, UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=77957297215&partnerID=8YFLogxK, Powered by Pure, Scopus & Elsevier Fingerprint Engine™ © 2021 Elsevier B.V, "We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content. For comparison of both conditions a standard permutation test for unpaired samples was performed [51]. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). Terms and Conditions,
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